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Year Reference
2005 Analysis of anthrax and plague biowarfare vaccine interactions with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Skowera A, de Jong EC, Schuitemaker JHN, Allen JS, Wessely SC, Griffiths G, Kapsenberg M, Peakman M J. Immunol. 2005 Dec 1;175: 7235-43


The anti-biowarfare anthrax and plague vaccines require repeated dosing to achieve adequate protection. To test the hypothesis that this limited immunogenicity results from the nature of vaccine interactions with the host innate immune system, we investigated molecular and cellular interactions between vaccines, dendritic cells (DCs), and T cells and explored the potential for adjuvants (pertussis) to boost induction of host immunity. Human monocyte-derived DCs were matured in the presence of vaccines and analyzed for their ability to induce Th1/Th2 development from naive T cells, expression of cell surface maturation/costimulation molecules, and cytokine production. The vaccines showed different behavior patterns. Although the plague vaccine is equivalent to control maturation factors in maturation and stimulation of DCs and induces strong MLR and Th outgrowth, the anthrax vaccine is a poor inducer of DC maturation, as indicated by low levels of HLA-DR, CD86, and CD83 induction and minimal proinflammatory cytokine production. Interestingly, however, anthrax vaccine-treated DCs stimulate Th1 and Th2 outgrowth and a limited MLR response. There was no sustained negative modulatory effects of the anthrax vaccine on DCs, and its limited stimulatory effects could be overridden by coculture with pertussis. These results were supported by analysis of anthrax vaccine recall responses in subjects vaccinated using pertussis as an adjuvant, who demonstrate anthrax-specific effector T cell responses. These data show that the anthrax vaccine is a suboptimal DC stimulus that may in part explain the observation that it requires repeated administration in vivo and offer a rational basis for the use of complementary DC-maturing adjuvants in combined immunotherapy.