ELISA and cytokines

Cytokines and granzymes are a group of signaling proteins that affect the behavior of cells. They are critically involved in various physiological processes such as immune regulation, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, chemotaxis and cell apoptosis. These signaling proteins are produced by various cell types in many vertebrate species and are active at very low concentrations, usually in the picogram to femtogram range.

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is one of the most important and popular methods to detect and measure these signaling proteins. The assay is fast and easy to perform and is one of the most sensitive and reliable technologies available.
U-CyTech offers high-quality ELISA kits and antibody pairs for the detection of cytokine and granzyme levels in biological fluids, such as cell culture supernatant, plasma or serum.

Brief description of the ELISA procedure

The sandwich ELISA is performed in antibody-coated 96-well microtiter plates. Samples with unknown concentrations of the analyte of interest (e.g. cytokine or granzyme) and a serially diluted standard with known analyte concentrations are added. Thereafter, the bound analyte is associate with a biotinylated detection antibody and a streptavidin-HRP conjugate. Subsequently, ready-to-use TMB substrate is added, which yield a colored product and can be determined by a spectrophotometer. 
The different steps of the ELISA procedure are illustrated in the ELISA Flow diagram.


U-CyTech provides a wide range of ELISA kits and antibody pairs for the detection of human, monkey, mouse and rat cytokines or granzymes e.g. IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, GM-CSF, Granzyme B, Perforin and TNF-α.
The monkey ELISA products have been validated for several species of Old World monkey including rhesus macaques, pig-tailed macaques, cynomolgus monkeys and baboons.
U-CyTech also offers ELISA products for the detection of cytokines in samples of marmoset (New World monkey species), including IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17A and TNF-α.
Our ELISA products are widely applied in various research fields, including cancer research1,2,3, vaccine development4,5,6, infectious diseases7,8,9,10 and autoimmune diseases11,12. Hundreds of peer-reviewed publications describe the successful use of U-CyTech’s ELISA products and/ or apply our high affinity antibodies in other immunoassays. Please find these references in our Reference database.


U-CyTech ELISA products

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ELISPOT applied in researchFAQs ELISAELISA guidelinesManual databaseReference databaseELISA productsOrdering information


References ELISA products


Click on the authors for the abstract of the below mentioned acticles.

  1. Chiriva-Internati M et al. (2012). Identification of AKAP-4 as a new cancer/testis antigen for detection and immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Prostate. 72: 12-23.
  2. Straetemans T et al. (2015). Recurrence of melanoma following T cell treatment: continued antigen expression in a tumor that evades T cell recruitment. Mol. Ther. 23: 396-406.
    • U-CyTech products used in this study:
  3. Deng M et al. (2021). Activation of the complement system in patients with cancer cachexia. Cancers. 13: 5767.
  4. Ghotloo S et al. (2015). Immunomodulatory effects of chitin microparticles on Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice. Parasitol. Int. 64: 219-21.
  5. Zhang W et al. (2018). Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm-p80: prophylactic efficacy using TLR4 agonist vaccine adjuvant glucopyranosyl lipid A-Alum in murine and non-human primate models. J. Investig. Med. 8:1124-1132.
  6. Van Coillie et al. (2023). The BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induces transient afucosylated IgG1 in naive but not in antigen-experienced vaccinees. EbioMedicine. 87: 104408.
    • U-CyTech products used in this study:
  7. Zhao Y et al. (2013). Modulation of inflammatory bowel disease in a mouse model following infection with Trichinella spiralis. Vet. Parasitol. 194: 211-6.
  8. Nelson M and Loveday M (2014). Exploring the innate immunological response of an alternative nonhuman primate model of infectious disease; the common marmoset. J. Immunol. Res. 2014: 913632.
    • U-CyTech products used in this study:
    • Monkey species: Callithrix jacchus
  9. Geyer CE et al. (2023). Identification of new drugs to counteract anti-spike IgG-induced hyperinflammation in severe COVID-19. Life Sci Alliance 6(11): e202302106.
  10. Wong E et al. (2020). IL-10 Impairs Local Immune Response in Lung Granulomas and Lymph Nodes during Early Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. J. Immunol.  204(3): 644-659.
    • U-CyTech products used in this study:
    • Monkey species: Macaca fascicularis
  11. Karwasra R et al. (2019). Pomegranate supplementation attenuates inflammation, joint dysfunction via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in experimental models of rheumatoid arthritis. J. Food Biochem. 43: e12959.
  12. Benne N et al. (2024). Autoantigen-dexamethasone Conjugate-Loaded Liposomes Halt Arthritis Development in Mice. Adv Healthc Mater: e2304238.
    • U-CyTech products used in this study: